Friday, January 24, 2020

Stereotyping and Profiling Based Upon Religion Essay -- Islam, Religio

Living in America we deal with a lot of diversity, especially those in the criminal justice degree program where situations caused by diversity can lead to a problem. Stereotyping is one of the biggest problems that we deal with, particularly in law enforcement. There have been many allegations of police officers accused of going after individuals and accusing them of a crime based on the sole fact of what their religious beliefs might be. This has been going on for a long time; however in recent years, it has gotten worse. The main job of police officers is to uphold the law, not to break it. Although stereotyping is not against the law, police officers have taken an oath to protect all human beings, regardless of their race or religion and stereotyping based on religion should not take place. Just because an individual is of a certain race dose not give us the right to stereotype them as a bad human being. Fred Edmund Jandt (2003), the word â€Å"stereotype† was first used to show the judgments made about individuals on the origin of their racial background. Today the expression is more commonly used to pass on to events made on the basis of a groups association. Psychologists have attempted to give explanations of stereotyping as errors that our brains make in the judgment of other people that are related to those mistakes our brains make in the view of illustration illusions. When information is blurred, the brain frequently reaches the incorrect conclusion. (p.77) Fred Edmund Jandt (2003), is the practice of racial profiling stereotyping? Profiling refers to a law enforcement carry out of scrutinizing of certain persons based on characteristics thought to classify an option of illegal activities. Example, a person traveling a... ...inar strips away cultural stereotypes. Pittsburgh Tribunei-Review. Retrieved October 30, 2008, from Jandt, F. E. (2003, July 21). Barries to intercultural communication. In An introduction to intercultural communication (4th ed., pp. 77,79). Sage Publications, Inc. Retrieved October 28, 2008, from,M1 Morgenstern, H. (n.d.). Suicide terror - fire fighters response. In Suicide terror - fire fighters response [Fact sheet]. Retrieved October 28, 2008, from

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Origin of Eukaryotes

* The origin of eukaryotes is important to understand the origin of modern complex cells. There are three main separate theories that hypothesize the origins: the three-domain system, eocyte theory, and endosymbiosis. Each one have there own merits and evidence supporting. These theories suggest the evolution of cells from the most primitive prokaryotes, unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei, to the most complex eukaryotes, single or multicellular organisms with a membrane enclosed nucleolus and organelles. The Three Domain Hypothesis refers to the proposal by Carl Woese in 1990 that; archaebacteria form a monophyletic group, this clade is sufficiently different from all other prokaryotes to deserve elevation to a separate Domain called Archaea (the other two Domains are Bacteria and Eukarya each arising from a progenote), eukaryotes are more closely related to archaebacteria than to other prokaryotes, and the root of the universal tree of life lies in the branch leading to Bacteria. The three-domain system met with some opposition on the differences between archaea and bacteria. Research of large subunits of RNA polymerase, some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aspartyl, leucyl, tryptophanyl, and tyrosyl), and outer membrane molecules distinctions indicated that Woese was right in the classification and that these organisms were so genetically distinct (in the 165rRNA genes and differences in cell structures) that they needed their own domains. * In the 1984 James Lake theorized eukaryotes evolved from a specific group of ancestrial archea, the eocyte. The idea that eukaryotes could have arisen from a lineage of prokaryotes, using expanded molecular sequence datasets and phylogenetic approaches. Using a matrix of amino acid sites, traditional methods such as maximum parsimony resulted in the 3-domains topology, but an eocyte tree was obtained when maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses were performed. In sum this analyses provide support for the eocyte tree, rather than the 3-domains tree. This is supported by the concept that eukaryotic nucleo-cytoplasm evolved from within archaebacteria. Eukaryotes would have had to replace their old lipid synthesis with a eubacterial-type system since the operational genes of eukaryotes are primarily eubacterial, not archaebacterial (National Academy of Science of the United states 2008). Eukaryotes are seen as an evolutionary marvel for they can pack hundreds of energy-generating mitochondria into a single cell. Hundreds of millions of years ago, eukaryotes formed permanent colonies in which certain cells dedicated themselves to different tasks, such as nutrition or excretion, and whose behavior was well coordinated. This specialization allows them to grow, and evolving into new elaborate purposes. These cells have a true nucleus, bound by a double membrane. Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus. The purpose of the nucleus is to sequester the DNA- functions of the eukaryotic cell into chamber for increased efficiency. This function is unnecessary for the prokaryotic cell, because it is much smaller in size; materials within the cell are close together. There is an area of nuclear DNA unbound by a membrane called a nucleoid. Eukaryotic cells are larger, more advanced and have a higher output of energy in comparison to Prokaryotes. Lynn Margulis (1970) defined the hypothesis of Endosymbiosis as the engulfment of one cell by another larger cell, with the engulfed cell evolving into an organelle. Margulis claimed that as a result of communal and parasitic lives, bacterial cells turned into plants and animals through endosymbiosis. In this theory, plant cells developed when a cyanobacteria (chloroplast) was swallowed by another bacterial cell and animal cells were formed through mitochondria being engulfed by host cell. Another example is between a termite and microorganisms in its gut. The termite consumes wood, but it cannot digest it, the protozoan’s in the termite's gut break down the cellulose into simple sugars which both organisms can digest. When the protozoa digest the wood cellulose, they release acetic acid and other acids that the host termite is able to metabolize. Thus, the termite and the protozoan uniquely supply food for each other (Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2005). The origin of the eukaryotic cell was important, since they include all complex cells and almost all multi-cellular organisms. The timing these events is hard to determine, each hypothesis have there own evidence that support itself. Until further evidence can be found scientists can only speculate on the origins of Eukaryotes.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Bullying and Harassment in Australia - 689 Words

Organisations within Australia have a legal obligation to prevent bullying and harassment. The Fair Work Commission, Australia’s national workplace relations tribunal, states that â€Å"bullying at work† occurs when â€Å"a person or a group of people repeatedly behaves unreasonably towards a worker or a group of workers at work and the behaviour creates a risk to health and safety.†(Fair Work Commission 2014).The legislation in Australia, implemented from the 1st of January 2014, dictates that a worker in a constitutionally covered business who reasonably believes that he or she has been bullied at work can apply to the Fair Work Commission for an order to stop the bullying .If the Fair Work Commission finds that the worker has been bullied and there is a risk that it will continue, it can order the bullying to stop. Bullying behaviour may also be discrimination based on age, disability, sex, pregnancy, race, disability, sexual orientation, religious belief or a ctivity or other attribute protected by the Equal Opportunity Act 2010 (Fair Work Commission 2014). According to Metz (2011), women are being deprived of opportunities and being squeezed out of organisations due to preconceptions about their dedication to a long term role, based on outdated gender stereotypes. In general, women experience higher rates of harassment at work, compared to men(McLaughlin, Uggen and Blackstone 2012). Bullying and harassment within the workplace can be attributed to a myriad of factors. The workShow MoreRelatedThe Issues Of Discrimination And Harassment1575 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction This essay explores the issues of Discrimination and Harassment, in particular, the legal obligations, protection and resources available to human service clients, within Australia and specifically Queensland. 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